Many dynamical systems in physics, astronomy, chemistry, physiology, meteorology, economics, population dynamics can be described by Ordinary Differential Equations.
In the second half of the 20th century much attention has been focused on the often chaotic, i.e. unpredictable behavior of (non-linear) ODE’s. A well-known example is the Lorenz atractor, illustrating the “Butterfly effect”: small causes can have large effects. Mathgrapher uses an accurate Adams-Bashforth variable order, variable step predictor-corrector algorithm to integrate systems of up to 20 coupled differential equations.
Several analytical tools are available for ODE’s such as: Time series | Power spectra | 2D and 3D projection | Phase portraits | Poincare section | Equilibrium points | Lyapunov exponents
Examples: Lorenz Equations | Hénon-Heiles potential | Rössler Equation | van der Pol oscillator | Duffing oscillator | Predator-Prey equation (Voltera)
Is given by:
We have adopted a=0.2, b=0.2 and c=4.2 with initial values F1=X=0.8, F2=Y=0.5 and F3=Z=0.25. The integration was done from T=0 to 1024 and output was generated at 1024 intermediate points. The graph shows X = F1 versus Y = F2
The same parameters were used to calculate the power spectrum of Z = F3 below. It is interesting to study this system for different values of c. As c is increased from about 2.5 to 5 the orbit undergoes a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations (as in the logistic map; see Iterations) until a strange attractorlike behavior is attained.